This is to provide an update on this story from earlier this year, where we successfully defended a property owner’s right to deny the State Highway Administration’s efforts to gain access to his property for environmental testing, and actually had the statute in question declared unconstitutional. As matters turned out, the State Highway Administration did not appeal this ruling. Some observers argued that SHA had no choice but to appeal, as this statute was essential to their condemnation powers.
Perhaps, however, SHA determined that it would rather lose the ability to gain access to this one piece of property than risk an unfavorable opinion from the appellate courts of Maryland, which would have effectively invalidated the statute for all prospective eminent domain actions throughout the state.
Relatedly, the California Supreme Court is reviewing a lower appeals court’s finding that California’s similar pre-condemnation exploration — or, as the Maryland court called it, “test drive” — statute was also unconstitutional. The parties are currently in the process of submitting their briefs and oral argument likely will be held next year. We certainly will be watching.
For the past year, the Montgomery County Department of Liquor Control’s dispensary system, which requires every keg, can, or bottle of alcohol sold within the county to be purchased from the County itself — either directly or indirectly — has been under fire. The State Comptroller, Peter Franchot, a county native and the state’s chief regulator of alcohol, has even called for it to be abolished.
Earlier this year, the Department of Liquor Control itself commissioned a report from a Philadelphia consulting firm to determine what the DLC needed to do to modernize its operations and better serve the county’s consumers. That 95-page report was released yesterday and it highlights multiple weaknesses in DLC operations, including an aging truck fleet, insufficient number of stores to meet the needs of either customers or retailers, high operating costs, and low profit margins. The report also notes that the Chevy Chase location, which just happens to be a block or so from the border with DC, has been a colossal money pit — losing $278,000.00 in fiscal 2013.
The report includes recommendations to deal with this raft of challenges, but it also raises the question of whether the system is worth saving at all.
Sure to add to the pressure on DLC is that the Montgomery County Office of Legislative Oversight is due to release its own report on DLC in the coming months. Until then, and as we embark on a new legislative session in January, the drumbeat of criticism against DLC is likely to continue and grow.
The Washington Post has an article today on the proliferation of Chipotle-inspired “fast casual” restaurants that allow customers to customize their meals with a variety of fresh ingredients. The article notes that, while more traditional fast food establishments (think McDonalds or Wendy’s or Taco) are struggling to find new opportunities for growth, fast casual restaurants are booming. One of the things missing from the story’s analysis of why these restaurants are so popular is the fact that many serve alcohol. For Millennials on a budget, or Generation Xers looking for a place to get dinner with three little kids (like my wife and I, for example), the prospect of getting a beer with my burger or burrito is an attractive one. It makes the whole dining experience seem just that much more civilized.
In my own law practice, I work regularly with fast casual restaurant clients lately on liquor license and leasing issues. In the latter instance, one of the critical elements of my lease review and negotiation is to ensure that the lease contains provisions related to liquor licenses, including that service of beer and wine be included in the permitted uses and, where possible, the inclusion of a liquor license contingency, i.e. a provision that allows the tenant to terminate the lease if it cannot obtain a liquor license for the establishment.
Where the lease is for a more traditional sit-down restaurant, such provisions may be included as a matter of course, but where a tenant is seeking to open a small burrito shop, that may not be the case. Indeed, the landlord may not even be aware of the tenant’s intention to apply for a license to serve beer and wine, or the importance of such a license to the tenant’s overall business model. If not, the landlord (who generally prepares the first draft of the lease) may not include a liquor license contingency, or even include the service of alcoholic beverages among the permitted uses at the establishment. If either is not included, it can create significant problems down the road.
Of course, that is why a thorough review of any proposed lease is necessary before the tenant signs, preferably by a lawyer with a strong familiarity with the restaurant business — and who has discussed with the tenant in detail his specific business plan.
On Monday, July 14, a judge of the Montgomery County Circuit Court declared unconstitutional a long-standing law that permits the Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) to obtain a court order allowing it to enter private property, without the landowner’s consent, and conduct intrusive drilling, soil sampling, and subsurface engineering studies. The law has been on the books for over thirty years and appears to have never before been subject to significant judicial scrutiny.
Sean T. Morris of The Morris Law Firm, LLC, successfully argued the case on behalf of a shopping center owner who objected to SHA’s demand that the landowner allow SHA engineers to drill multiple 50-foot deep holes through the shopping center’s parking lot in an effort to determine if the property is suitable for condemnation to construct a noise barrier along Interstate 270. Upon receiving such objection, SHA’s attorneys sought a court order requiring the shopping center owner to grant such access. The shopping center owner opposed the petition and the matter was set for hearing this past Monday.
During oral argument, the court characterized the relevant provision of the state’s eminent domain law as a “test drive statute” and questioned why the state should be permitted to engage in such actions without providing just compensation for the intrusion as required by the Maryland and United States Constitutions. Ultimately, the court concluded that the state should not be permitted to do so, finding that such actions amounted to a taking, even if it were only a temporary one. The court denied SHA’s petition to enter onto the shopping center property and declared the statute “clearly unconstitutional.”
In reaching its opinion, the court engaged in a detailed review of challenges to similar statutes around the country, many of which have previously been found to be unconstitutional by appellate courts around the nation. One such case appears headed for the California Supreme Court for resolution later this year or next year. Whether this case is similarly destined for Maryland’s appeals courts remains to be seen.
For the first time in five years, the District of Columbia will begin issuing in new liquor licenses to restaurants in the Adams Morgan neighborhood of the city. Until now, there had been a moratorium on the issuance of new such licenses, leaving aspiring restaurateurs with no choice but to identify a party willing to transfer an existing license, often at considerable expense. The moratorium was renewed for an additional three years for taverns and other facilities, and nightclub licenses will continue to be barred in the area.
The Adams Morgan Moratorium Zone is one of five such moratorium zones in the District, with the others being Georgetown, Glover Park, East Dupont, and West Dupont.
The press release announcing the change can be found here, while the rulemaking notice, which sets for the reasoning of the Board and the parties’ respective arguments, can be found here.
In a world where it seems every other startup wants to be known as the “Uber for _______,” call these companies the “Ubers for booze.” Tap an app on your phone, and have beer, wine or liquor delivered to your door by the likes of Ultra, Klink, and new entrant BrewDrop, which just launched in Austin.
And just as Uber drew government scrutiny as it moved from startup to industry upstart, it should not be surprising that some of these companies now being targeted by alcohol regulators. The first casualty is Ultra, whose operations have been shut down in Washington, DC, by the city’s Alcoholic Beverage Regulation Administration [ABRA].
The crux of the DC regulator’s argument against Ultra is that, while the booze orders are actually fulfilled by Ultra’s partners, which are licensed to sell liquor in DC, Ultra itself is also required to have a license because it is the one that processes and accepts the payments. ABRA set forth this position in an advisory opinion handed down in March in reference to another would-be competitor, BeerRightNow.com. Klink, for its part, notes that it does not actually involve itself in the transaction and remains in operation in Washington, DC.
So, for now, Ultra’s deliveries are grounded in DC, but remain ongoing in the Montgomery County suburb of Silver Spring, as well as several other cities including Chicago and New York. The company’s website indicates it also intends to expand soon to Boston and Los Angeles. Expect regulators to pay attention when they do.
Several new laws were passed in the recent Maryland legislative session that affect how small brewers may sell their products to consumers in the state. Generally speaking, sales of alcoholic beverages in the United States are funneled through a “three tier” system: producers (i.e. brewers, winemakers, and distillers) sell to wholesalers; wholesalers sell to retailers; and retailers sell to consumers. In Montgomery County, where I live and work, there is another tier — the county Department of Liquor Control (DLC) itself, which inserts itself between the wholesaler and the retailer, requiring all purchases by retailers to made directly from the DLC.
With the enactment of the following laws, the Maryland legislature has loosened the requirements of the three tier system when it comes to certain small producers. Unless otherwise indicated, these laws relate to holders of Class 7 micro-brewery licenses, which permit the production of up to 22,500 barrels of beer per year.
- Sale of Prepackaged Beer. Starting July 1, the holder of a Class 7 micro-brewery license may sell its own beer, in prepackaged non-refillable containers (i.e. bottles and cans, but not growlers), at retail for consumption off the premises. Think of this as allowing small producers to sell six-packs of their own beer directly to customers who come to visit their brewery, as wineries commonly do with bottles of their own wine.
- Direct Sales to Retailers in Montgomery County. In 2013, the Maryland legislature passed a law that permitted Class 7 micro-brewery license holders to seek a license to self-distribute (i.e sell directly to retailers, thus skipping the wholesaler tier noted above) up to 3000 barrels of their own beer to retailers in the state. Because of Montgomery County’s “fourth tier” of the DLC, however, this law did not apply to Montgomery County retailers. Effective July 1, however, holders of these special beer wholesaler’s licenses may bypass the DLC completely and sell directly to retailers and restaurants. For an explanation of the significance of this change, and how it will change the landscape for consumers in Montgomery County, read this fantastic piece on DCBeer.com’s Bill DeBaun. Montgomery County’s own Denizens Brewing Company was instrumental in getting this law passed.
- Self-Distribution by Farm Brewers. Maryland is one of handful of states — another is my native New York — that has a special farm brewer’s license, which is intended to promote both small brewers and Maryland farmers by requiring the beer produced to be made with Maryland agricultural products. A new law will allow those holding these Class 8 Farm Brewer’s licenses to obtain a Class 7 limited beer wholesaler’s license to they may self-distribute their beer to retailers as well.
- Craft Beer to Somerset County. Though it does not relate specifically to self-distribution, the legislature also passed a bill which added Somerset County to list of Maryland counties in which a Class 7 micro-brewery license may be issued. This is good news for aspiring brewers on the lower Eastern Shores and leaves, at last check, Caroline, Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne’s, and Saint Mary’s counties as the remaining Maryland jurisdictions thirsting for the possibility of local craft beer.
As craft beer continues to expand throughout the country, we can hope that enactment of these laws brings greater variety of beer to consumers, and promotes the growth of these important small businesses in our state.
This will be the first of what I hope will be several posts on interesting new laws that came out of the 2014 Maryland legislative session. This post concerns new alcoholic beverage licensing laws in Montgomery County, Maryland. Many of these new laws were the product of the County’s Nighttime Economy Task Force, which was aimed at making the County a more attractive place to those seeking lively after-hours offerings. Unless otherwise indicated, these laws go into effect on July 1, 2014:
- Ratios of Food to Alcohol Sales: Restaurants and taverns holding licenses to sell beer, wine and liquor have been required to keep records showing that the total sales of alcoholic beverages does not exceed those of food. Starting July 1, however, the minimum food sales has been decreased to 40%, thus allowing for bars and taverns to provide a greater offering of high-end (and thus more expensive) beers, wines and cocktails.
- Class D-BWL (Beer Wine & Liquor) Licenses: The county Board of License Commissioners may now issue a Class D license for on-premise consumption of beer, wine and liquor. This license provides for the same 60/40 alcoholic beverage, but only requires the ratios to be met during the hours before 9pm, thus allowing the establishment to cater to those more interested in beer, wine and cocktails during those later hours.
- Later Last Call: New Class D license holders, as well as those holding Class B-BWL, will be entitled to serve alcohol until 3am, instead of 2am.
- Limits on Number of Licenses Lifted: Prior restrictions on a person holding multiple alcoholic beverage licenses have been lifted such that an individual may hold up to 10 Class B licenses, which allow for on-premise sales at hotels and restaurants, in the county. This will be significant to operators with, or seeking to establish, multiple locations in the County.
- Beauty Salon License: Montgomery County beauty salons will be able to apply for and obtain a beer and wine license, notwithstanding the fact that they do not serve food. That local salons could not provide such a service to their customers has long been seen as a hindrance in their competition with similar salons in the District of Columbia.
This list is not exhaustive and some other laws were passed affecting other types of businesses or specific localities, but these appear to be the laws that will affect the widest range of bars and restaurants and have an impact on the lives of most County residents.
Next up: Laws affecting small alcoholic beverage producers and distributors.
A few weeks ago, I wrote a post here about the possibility that counties in Maryland may consider removing the requirement that liquor licenses be held by at least one resident of the county that issues it. Shortly thereafter, the blog BethesdaNow picked up on the story and interviewed me about whether that might be a good idea for Montgomery County.
Well, it appears this issue has gotten the attention of some influential folks here in Montgomery County and there is now legislation moving forward in Annapolis, sponsored by Del. Tom Hucker, to exempt Montgomery County liquor license holders from this residency requirement. A hearing is scheduled on the legislation for this afternoon, February 17, at 1pm.
Continue to check back here for more news as this legislation continues to move forward.
The federal Alcohol Tobacco Tax & Trade Bureau (TTB) announced earlier this month that, as of the end of 2013, there were over 3700 active brewer’s notices on file with the TTB. A federal brewer’s notice is required to operate a brewery and sell beer in interstate commerce. That number represents a 12% increase over the total at the end of 2012, demonstrating the explosive growth in craft brewing in the United States.
The TTB also cited the government shutdown as contributing to the backlog of applications for both new breweries and new product or label approvals. While TTB notes it is “work[ing] tirelessly” to process these applications in a timely manner, that this backlog exists highlights the need to ensure that all applications are in order when they are submitted so further needless delay can be avoided.